Using Economics to Encourage Testing Incrementally (or As You Go Along)

At TriAgile, I had an interesting conversation with a Product Owner. She described to me a problem where the testers could not keep up and their behaviors were actually holding them back. Let me describe her situation…

In her content development team, they had a couple of testers. They manually tested hyperlinks and other HTML/JavaScript/CSS elements towards the end of the iteration. While she would love to move to automated testing, there were some hurdles to get software approved for use, plus she had this whole behavioral mindset she needed to overcome. The testers on her team felt building and running tests incrementally as a developer completed work on acceptance criteria was wasteful. They preferred to do it after a story was completed by teh content developer; this then always put them being crunched. No matter how hard this Product Owner tried to convince them to do their testing as they go, they resisted. Her Scrum Master was also not providing any influence one way or the other.

As we discussed this at TriAgile, I finally settled on economics to help her understand the situation.

Suppose a content developer produced a defect that prevented a CSS library from working by using a faulty assumption (let’s say it was as simple as a misspelled directory in the URL). And let’s suppose this faulty assumption caused the error to be reproduced 10 times. And further, let’s say each time the person did this, it took them 10 minutes to implement each instance. Lastly, it took the tester 5 minutes to test EACH instance.  So let’s do some math. (All of the times are hypothetical; they could be longer or shorter.)

So first up, testing at the end: 10 x 10 minutes implementation + 10 x 5 minutes testing = 150 minutes. But wait, we now have to fix those errors. So presuming that great information got passed back to the developer and it only takes them 5 min to correct each instance, we need to add: 10 x 5 minutes fix time + 10 x 5 minutes retesting = 100 minutes.  So our total time to get to done is 150 + 100 = 250 minutes to implement, test, correct, and retest the work. Our Product Owner had actually said that this kind of error replication had happened multiple times.

OK, what would have happened if it happened incrementally? Well our implementation time is the same, but after the first implementation occurs it would go to get tested. If an error is found, it goes back to the content developer and having seen the error she or he was making, they can now avoid reproducing it. So the time would be something like this: 1 x 10 minutes implementation + 1 x 5 minutes testing = 15 min, then 1 reworked item x 5 min + 1 item retested x 5 min = 10 min, and finally 9 remaining items x 10 minutes implementation + 9 x 5 minutes testing = 130. Total time now is 160 min.

If the cost was $2/minute (assuming a $120/hour rate employee), you easily wasted

$250 – $160 or $90.

Now multiply this by however many teams are not testing as they go and how many times they have this happen.

Of course there could be items caught that are not recurring, but the fact of the matter is, every recurrence of an error that has to be backed out introduces a lot of waste into the system (defect waste for you Lean/Six Sigma types). Testing as you go and stopping ‘the line’ to prevent future defects from occurring saves money in the long run since labor time is what we are talking about.

In addition to this direct savings as calculated above, one ALSO has the queue time for each test that is awaiting to being tested before it can be OK-ed to produce value. In the first instance, this may be building up considerably, delaying production readiness. And suppose out of the 10 occurrences above, only 8 could be completed because we’re near the end of the iteration? Then we’re probably not going to get all of them tested and any fixes done in time. If we had been testing along the way, then if something didn’t get tested, we could talk with the Product Owner about releasing what was completed and successfully tested. Something of value is completed as opposed to deploying nothing. There is a real opportunity cost for this delay.

So there is something to be learned by each area with this. For the tester, testing completed work, even manually, incrementally keeps you from becoming a bottleneck to producing value. For the developer, giving developed items to the tester incrementally and getting feedback after each item allows you to correct along the way, possibly avoiding future errors. And for the business, having this occur incrementally actually reduces both the real and potential opportunity costs of the work.

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